Caloutta has not only unmanageable traffic problems but problems of storage, shopping centers and environmental pollution are also grave. In this article, a broad plan to develop the Calcutta City by using the subsurface spaces has been outlined as a possible solution of these problems.
Calcutta" chance erected mid-day resting place of Job Charnock, which in 1690 was only a cluster of three small villages, is today the home of 7.3 millions. This number swells everyday when about 1.2 million Commuters enter into the city in the morning, to disperse to the suburbs by night. The city has grown in strategic, political and commercial importance into a sprawling metropolis, with links through network of roads and railways all over the country. The City is also served by a major inland port and the two major railway stations. It has become the hub of a busy industrial complex with heavy concentration of pollution. To add to this, job opportunities attract today a vast number of people from other parts of the country.
This congestion can be observed by lengthy queues, long waits at Bus & Tram stops, acute discomforts, perilous foot board travel, irritation etc. resulting in loss of invaluable time and energy of its population especially during the office hours. The ground corridor from Howrah and Sealdab Railway stationed to B.B.D. Bagh -Bara Bazar area present striking spectacle of pedestrian in continuous streams sourring towards their destination. In addition to above, the market places and shopping centers are over flowing in most part of the footpath and even part of tm road is occupied by temporary shacks to serve the additional needs of shopping centers of the growing population. In addition to above, roads are also occupied by parking ofCars and the accumulation of garbage which is estimated to be 2500 tones per day. Calcutta was once called a City of processions by no other person than Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of independent India. People of Calcutta are generally politically conscious and they are religious minded also. Therefore it is not uncommon to see processions in the main roads of the city area - Political processions during day time and marriage and religious processions during the evening. The density of population in the central 100 Square Kilometers is more than 30.000 per Square Kilometers. In certain smaller sections. congestion is even much greater. Therefore. the Calcutta city surface is overloaded by human activities a traffic. market centers and buildings. Only 6% of the city area is covered by road which is much too low by any standard. Daily passenger demand volume is 5.5 millions on the road length of about 180 Kms. Publio &: private transport system and the Tramways cater for only 2.8 million passengers. In addition. the Calcutta is also an industrial city which manufactures Engineering goods, Electrical goods, Jute products and Chemicals. Inland goods traffic to and from Calcutta is catered by the network of road and rail system.