The conditions for people who work in underground facilities has, to a very limited extent, been the subject of serious discussion, problem analysis or research. Knowledge within this subject area is, as a result, very limited (Chapter 2). A framework of reference which demonstrates the factors which influence human being's reactions to spending periods of time underground and how these factors interact needs to be developed (Chapter 3). A more extensive expansion of underground space where human beings will spend periods of time ought not to be explorated before more is known about the effects that can occur and the causes of these effects. If after thorough consideration it is decided to site an activity underground, the underground space must be dimensioned and designed in such a way that disadvantages, for example lack of windows and reduced accessibility can be compensated for to the greatest extent possible (Chapter 4). Continued Rand D work on these problems must be carried out (Chapter 5).


Background Use of underground space can be expected to increase as urbanization continues and planners and decision makers become more aware of the resource that underground construction represents. Use of underground space for a whole series of purposes is clearly advantageous both from the technical and economic point of view. Unfortunately, underground space is not as clearly advantageous as an environment for human beings. Conditions for those working in underground facilities have only to a very limited extent been the subject of serious discussion, problem analysis or research. In addition to there not existing a total picture of the environmental problems underground, extremely little is known about how the characteristics of underground space affect the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. Assessment of the social effects of spending periods of time underground is also almost entirely undocumented.


This paper deals with the reactions of human beings to speeding periods of time underground and aims at indicating the extent of current knowledge on the reactions of human beings to spending periods of time underground presenting a framework of reference for analysis of the interaction between individuals and elements in the surroundings presenting important environmental aspects to be taken into consideration in the planning of underground space indicating the areas requiring further research within the field in question The paper only deals with the use of "pure" underground space. Thus, the construction of underground space and its related special working environment problems are not dealt with.


With regard to the large number of underground premises which have been constructed, there has been surprisingly few attempts to determine what this implies physiologically and psychologically for people that work or spend periods of time underground. The few studies that have been carried out have, in the first instance, dealt with how lack of windows influences attitudes, health and work performance. Studies of how human being's reactions to spending periods of time underground are influenced by type of occupation, possibility of contact with other people. etc. remain to be carried out.

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