Future large and extremely large ground-based telescopes will demand stable geological settings. The world class astronomical observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands) Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) are in or closer to volcanic environments, and hence the impact of volcanic activity has to be studied in detail. In this sense, seismic activity, the extent of lava flows, eruptive clouds and ground deformation associated to volcanic/ tectonic activity have studied in terms of probabilistic risk analysis. This information might be essential in ranking astronomical sites for emplacing future large telescope infrastructures.

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