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Keywords: reduction
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Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-016
... stability and safety during excavation but also turned out to be the best in terms of execution times and costs. Figure 17 : The full-face excavation Figure 18 : Details in the cross-section Progressive reduction of total accumulated extrusion after final design calibration 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 58+600 58+620 58...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-132
... such as the US EPA's HELP model are widely used to develop cap designs and those commonly adopted are the multi-layer geomembrane, GCL or clay caps (Parker et al, 1993). solid waste management precipitation moisture content monitoring remediation subsoil layer Bacton Road rainfall reduction land...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-158
... and bagasse amended with glucose (0.1g) and/or digester sludge (5 mL). Pure bagasse did not significantly impact pH or metals concentrations (Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) after 180 days. Active microcosms produced near neutral pH conditions (4–6.5) and very high reductions (>95%) in dissolved Cu, Pb and Zn...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-119
... within the kaolinite. This pH reduction increased with the surface area of kaolinite available for reaction. In addition, CWD also neutralised an acid solution prepared in the laboratory. Those samples containing carbonates and alkaline clays actually increased the pH to alkaline levels. Although...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-094
... impeded operation of the ram. This relatively cooled oven has led to less settlement in Battery 2 in its local area (see Figure 2). Figure 2: Settlement of Battery 2 31 May 1996 CAUSE OF SETTLEMENT The principal cause of recorded oven settlement was identified as being a reduction in volume associated...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-090
... Sodium Hydroxide reduction casing and cementing cementitious compound fa 3 unconfined compressive strength cement formulation fly ash sodium chloride optimum lime content cement property Compound longer period unsoaked sample Upstream Oil & Gas lime content sulphate lime lime 1...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-301
... of electro-osmosis on clay adherence, laboratory tests were performed on four different clay soils using two test methods, the tilted plate and the direct shear box. It is shown that both tests can be used to reveal the sensitivity of a clay soil to a reduction in the adherence by electro-osmosis. Apart from...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-291
... to variation in groundwater, resulting in a reduction of effective stress in the soil. Nine centrifuge model experiments were performed investigating the influence of reducing the effective stress within the model by water inundation. The models tested were 1/10th scale. The full-scale prototype excavation...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-292
... construction method was proposed and successfully executed, allowing reduction of embedded lengths of diaphragm walls and avoiding the need for temporary support. This innovative method distinguishes itself from the original design by using jet-grouting and introduces the following features: smaller...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-313
...REDUCTION OF SOIL SWELL POTENTIAL WITH FIBER REINFORCEMENT J. Erik Loehr1, Paul J. Axtell2 and John J. Bowders3 ABSTRACT Fiber reinforcement of soils can reduce displacements due to swelling and shrinking of expansive soils. Described in this paper is a series of laboratory tests performed on fiber...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-317
... at active side Using LC-columns at the active side leads to a considerable reduction in Mmax, Xmax, Ysurface, see Figures 2a, 2b and 2c. If the active side is fully stabilised, the maximum bending moment in all excavation phases reduces from 677 kNm/m for the case without LC-columns, to 247 kNm/m...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-338
.... Results Weight loss of the coupons was used to calculate the reduction in thickness per year. However, since it proved difficult to remove adherent soil particles and corrosion products from some of the coupons without some loss of metal the results could be optimistic. Furthermore, it is normal...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-270
... vibrations. A method for estimation of vibration reduction by such wall barriers has been developed, based on wave penetration theory. 1) The PC wall-piles barrier was found to be capable of reducing vibration level by 10 to 15dB at a point just behind such a barrier and about 5dB at 10m away from it. 2...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-539
.... In the latter stage, a safety factor was searched by gradually reducing tuff strength until failure was eventually reached. A number of points on the roof were selected (Fig. 3) for which strains as a function of strength reduction were monitored. In particular, vertical strains were selected in points A, B, C...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-431
... to investigate the full range of materials in detail. Samples for scoping tests were selected on the basis of visual classification as being representative of the range of materials encountered across the estate. Soil Mechanics Aspects of Weakening Processes Weakening is measured by reductions of either or both...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-216
... MPa strength fine-grained sedimentary rock shale mudshale elasticity water content Reservoir Characterization Upstream Oil & Gas mudstone moisture content reduction mechanical behavior mudrock compressive strength clayshale uniaxial compressive strength mechanical behaviour...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-213
... carried out into the plausibility of the theory that clay weathering at Montemesola was mainly caused by drying-wetting cycles. These cycles have been simulated in the laboratory on samples of natural grey clay with the aim of evaluating whether they can induce a substantial reduction in specific volume...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, November 19–24, 2000
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-2000-198
... ~ 60 % strength reduction and about 50% reduction of the deformation modulus occurred when the sandstones were fully wetted. Both sandstones possess similar petrographic features: high matrix content (about 30%) and grain-to-grain microstructure with about 60% of contacts being tangent type contact...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, August 30–September 2, 1989
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-1989-002
... de- lineation of the creep behavior. PRIKARY CREEP There are three sources for macroscopic primary creep: rock mass transient stress redistributions; healing of damage and small changes of texture; and, inherent transient creep, a process still poorly understood. Reduction of transient magni- tUde...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the ISRM International Symposium, August 30–September 2, 1989
Paper Number: ISRM-IS-1989-102
... equation stress state sand production procedure risne gradient instability reduction permeability flowrate Rock at GreatOepth, Maury & Fourmaintraux (eds), © 1989 Balkema, Rotterdam. ISBN 90 61919754 A procedure for analysing seepage-induced collapse of weakly-cemented formations Methode...

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