SUMMARY:

Santorini is an island of the Southern Cyclades of Greece. Its history begins from the prehistoric times. Around 1500 B.C. however its Civilisation was destroyed by an ex-plosion of its volcano. Later on the Dorians arrived in the island and built the city of Thira. This city is preserved until today. Santorini has a long and rich history to show from ancient times till today. Geologically Santorini belongs th the volcanic arch of the Southern Aegean Sea. The pedestral of the stratigraphic column of the isand consists of mesozoic limestone. The rock that constitutes its geological structures is pleistocene until recently volcanic. The volcanic activity of the island from the pleistocene period until today is due to (7) seven volcanic centers, most of which consist of many volcanoe Santorini is often hit by dense, strong earthquakes and for this reason, Santorinis houses should have a good resistance to earthquakes. As such dwellings, the houses carved into the pumice stone (volcanic rock) were constructed. These, besides the humidity which they present, have an excellent behavior to earthquakes, do not undergo collapses and are very economical because they are constructed very easily.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG:

Santorini ist eine Insel der Kykladen in Griechenland. Ihre Geschichte fangt schon in der Prahistorischen Zeit an. Um 1500 v. Ch. wurde ihre zivilisation durch eine Vulkanexplosion vernichtet. Spater kamen auf die Insel die Dorier, die die Stadt Thera erbauten. Santorini hat eine reiche und jahrhunderte alte Geschichte, die von der Antike bis Zur heutigen Zeit reicht. Geologisch gesehen gehört Santorini zum vulkanischen Bogen des Attikokykladischen Bogens im Ägaischen Meer. Das Liegende der Vulkanite besteht aus mesozoischen Kalksteinen. Die Gesteine, aus denen das geologische Profil besteht, sind pleistozan bis jungvulkanisch. Die Vulkanische Tatigkeit seit dem Pleistozan ist auf sieben vulkanische Gebiete beschrankt, von denen die meisten aus mehreren Vulkankratern bestehen. Santorini erlebt oft haufige und starke Erdbeben, deshalb mußten Santorinis Hauser in alter Zeit ein gutes Verhalten den Erdbeben gegenueber haben. Schon die alten Griechen haben ihre Hauser, wie auch in der Neuzeit in Bimsstein (vulkanisches Gestein) ausgehat. Schachtet, um sich vor den Erdbeben und dem Jungvulkanismus zu schuetzen. Der Bimsstein hat eine geringe Feuchtigkeit, die das Gestein im Kornverband zusammenhalt. Im trockenen zustand zerfallt das Gestein.

RESUME:

La greque ile Santorini appartient aux Kyklades dans la partie meridionale de la mer Egee. La histoire va de l''antique jusqu'' aujourd''lui. Elle commence dejà dans le temps prehistorique. A 1500 a C. la civilisation a ete aneanti par une explosion volcanique. Plus tard les Dorins ont bati la ville Thera. Sur le plan geologique Santorini fait partie de l''arc insulaire attikokykladique dans la mer Egee. Les roches volcaniques au mur consistent en calcaire mesozoique. Les roches, qui forment le profil geologique sont pleistocene jusque à neo-volcanique. L''activite volcanique depuis le pleistocene est bornee aux sept regions, qui se composent de plusieurs crateres volcaniques. Comme Santorini est souvent secouee par les seismes violents, les habitants, au temps jadis comme aujourd''hui, construisent leures maisons dans le pierre ponce (roche volcanique). Par l''etat hygrometrique, le pierre ponce recoit sa stabilite. En l''etat sec, la roche se desagregent.

INTRODUCTION

In this work the excavated buildings of Santorini island are studied. Santorini is an island of the Southern Cyclades of Greece and geologically belongsto the volcanic arch of Aegean Sea.

The excavated constructions are dwellings carved in the pumice stone (volcanic rock). Initially they were made to be the dwellings of poor inhabitants of the island because it was easy to built them and also because they resisted to the weight of possible ash deposits in their roof. Later on however, they proved to be strong antiseismic constructions, which withstood all the seismic vibrations that took place in the island. For this reason, this work was oriented to the study of the construction of these dwellings, the examination of the geological background which they are constructed, the way of construction, their technical characteristics, and the reasons that they are withstanding anti-seismic dwellings.

As until now the reaction of these constructions to the frequent earthquakes of Santorini island has not been studied from the technical geological point of view, this study is attempting to clarify for the forst time the conditions of the western part of the city of Thira over the volcanic center Kamini of Santorini island.

1. Geographical Position

Santorini of Thira is one of the Cyclades islands. Together with Anafi island it forms the Southern part of the Cyclades islands complex. Santorini island occupies a range of 76 square kilometers and its populations is 6169 inhabitants in accordance with the 1971 census elements.

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