This paper describes numerical damage risk assessment studies on masonry buildings in Amsterdam due to TBM-tunnelling for the North/South Metroline. The specific surrounding conditions for TBM-tunnelling in Amsterdam (historic masonry buildings on piled foundations close to the tunnels and soft soil with high groundwater level) necessitated the application of numerical and analytical studies to investigate the risk of settlement-induced damage on the immediate surroundings. The calculations were carried out during the design phase of the North/South Metroline in Amsterdam using an advanced non-linear 3D-FE model of a typical Amsterdam masonry structure subjected to settlements due to the passage of the TBM. An extensive parametric study (variation of imposed settlement curves and material parameters for masonry) was used to derive specific damage criteria for the Amsterdam situation, which are used in addition to the analytical, empirical method generally applied in settlement risk assessment studies (limiting tensile strain method).


The North-South metroline is to be constructed under the historic center of Amsterdam by mechanized shield tunnelling in soft soil over a length of about 3.8 km. A major aspect for the design of the project is the assessment of the influence of ground movements caused by tunnelling on the immediate surroundings. Dependant on its orientation, location and construction, a building will undergo differential deformation and distortion that may cause aesthetic (cracks), functional or even structural damage. In Amsterdam the buildings are suceptible in technical and political sense (historical masonry buildings on piled foundations) and are not allowed to get unacceptable damage due to the TBMtunnelling of the North/South Line. To gain insight in the deformation capacity of typical masonry buildings in Amsterdam due to ground movements caused by passage of the TBM, 3D numerical settlement risk assessment studies were carried out.

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.