ABSTRACT:

The most important groundwater intake protected by the Finnish National Road Administration (=Finnra) is the Kuivala artificial groundwater intake in the Utti aquifer. This groundwater intake is the biggest in Finland and more than 100,000 people get their tap water from this intake. Nearly 13 kilometers of highway 6 goes through the Utti aquifer and the average daily traffic volume (ADT) is about 8,000 vehicles and of this 20 % is heavy traffic. Highway 6 is one of the most important routes for the transport of dangerous goods in Finland; over 300,000 tons yearly. In the Utti area Finnra uses approximately 10 tons/km of salt annually for the winter (November - March) maintenance of highway 6. The chloride concentrations of the Kuivala groundwater intake is low, below 10 mg/l. The most important reason to build the protections is to prevent hazardous substances from getting into the groundwater. The shields to the Kuivala groundwater intake area are constructed in two parts: the first part (1.5 km) was built in 1996 (costs 0.8 million dollars) and the second part (2.3 km) is built in 2001 (costs about 0.7 million dollars).

INTRODUCTION

The average temperature in Southern-Finland is approximately –5 oC in January and +16 oC in July and in Northern-Finland approximately –15 oC and +14 oC, respectively. The total length of public roads in Finland is 77 782 km. In Finland it is common that railways and roads have been built on sand and gravel areas; icemarginal formations (e.g. I and II Salpausselkä end moraine areas) and eskers. In these areas are also great deal of the most important groundwater resources which are being used by municipalities and industrial. In Finland winter affects the functioning of the entire road network during 5–7 months of the year.

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