In the first year of operation of coke ovens at Goa, India, settlements of the coke battery in excess of 600mm were observed. The thermal characteristics of geo-engineering materials at elevated temperatures (up to 1500°C), combined with the draft characteristics of the underflue system and the common flue/stack system, led to the creation of these settlements. Development of an understanding of the fusion of bedding sand and the fluxing effects of naturally occurring impurities within river sands, was a key component of the unravelling of the thermal mystery. Determination of the thermal characteristics of the lateritic foundation materials, whilst not only at elevated temperatures (1100°C) but also under compressive loading, was conducted employing unique Australian testing equipment. Conventional research of geo-materials has been restricted to a maximum of 100°C – the boiling point of water. The paper: explains the setting of the coke ovens within a lateritic province and within the lateritic profile at the coke oven site; describes the settlement induced distress of the coke ovens; reports the settlement profile of the coke battery and its interaction with the layout of the common flue/stack layout; describes the thermal analysis of the individual oven underflue labyrinth; describes the special testing of both the bedding sand beneath the battery and the foundation laterite soils; and presents the engineering interpretation of the thermal characteristics, the settlement mechanism, Class C prediction of settlements, as well as the prediction for future settlement at the coke battery.


Settlement distress had been observed at newly constructed coke batteries operated near Goa, India. The coke batteries are located adjacent to, and serve, Sesa Ghoa's blast furnaces at Amone, on the Mandovi River, about 20 km east of Panjim, Goa. Two coke batteries were constructed on a "greenfields" site and brought into production.

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.