With almost two hundred coal burning power plants in Ohio River valley, this region is considered important for evaluation of CO2 storage potential. In a CO2 storage project, the temperature of the injected CO2 is usually considerably lower than the formation temperature. The heat transfer between the injected fluid and rock has to be investigated in order to test the viability of the target formation to act as an effective storage unit and to optimize the storage process. In our previous work we have introduced the controversial idea of injecting CO2 for storage at fracturing conditions in order to improve injectivity and economics. Here we examine the thermal aspects of such process in a setting typical for Ohio River Valley target formation. A coupled flow, geomechanical and heat transfer model for the potential injection zone and surrounding formations has been developed. All the modeling focuses on a single well performance and considers induced fracturing for both isothermal and thermal injection conditions. The induced thermal effects of CO2 injection on stresses, and fracture pressure, and propagation are investigated. Possibility of shear failure in the caprock resulting from heat transfer between reservoir and the overburden layers is also examined. In the thermal case, the total minimum stress at the wellbore decreases with time and falls below the injection pressure quite early during injection. Therefore, fracturing occurs at considerably lower pressure, when thermal effects are present. The coupled thermal and dynamic fracture model shows that these effects could increase the speed of fracture propagation in the storage layer depending on the injection rate. These phenomena are dependent primarily on the difference between the injection and reservoir temperature.
Thermal Effects on Shear Fracturing and Injectivity During CO2 Storage
Goodarzi, Somayeh, Settari, Antonin, Zoback, Mark, and David W. Keith. "Thermal Effects on Shear Fracturing and Injectivity During CO2 Storage." Paper presented at the ISRM International Conference for Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, Brisbane, Australia, May 2013.
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