Hydraulic fracturing by shear slippage mechanism (mode II) has been studied in both laboratory and field scales to enhance permeability of geothermal reservoirs by numerous authors and their success stories have been reported. Shear slippage takes place along theplanes of pre-existing fractures which causes opening of the fracture planes by the fracture asperities (roughness induced opening). Simplified empirical relationships, which are derived based on simple fracture experiments or best guess, are used to calculate compressive normal surface traction, residual aperture and shear displacement. This introduces ambiguity into the simulation results and often leads to erroneous predictions of reservoir performance. In this study an innovative analytical approach based on the distributed dislocation technique is developed to simulate the roughness induced opening of fractures in the presence of compressive and shear stresses as well as fluid pressure inside the fracture. This provides fundamental basis for computation of aperture distribution for all parts of the fracture which can then be used in the next step of modeling fluid flow inside the fracture as a function of time. It also allows formulation of change in aperture due to thermal stresses. The stress distribution and the fluid pressure are calculated using the fluid flow modeling inside the fracture in a numerical framework in which thermo-hydro mechanical effects are also considered using finite element methods (FEM). In this study, fractures with their characteristic properties are considered to simulate rock deformation.
A New Approach to Hydraulic Stimulation of Geothermal Reservoirs by Roughness Induced Fracture Opening
Gholizadeh Doonechaly, Nima, Rahman, Sheik S., and Andrei Kotousov. "A New Approach to Hydraulic Stimulation of Geothermal Reservoirs by Roughness Induced Fracture Opening." Paper presented at the ISRM International Conference for Effective and Sustainable Hydraulic Fracturing, Brisbane, Australia, May 2013.
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