ABSTRACT:

This article presents the original methods of determination of the shear strength by planes of weakness on the basis of real concrete results of field tests of small pillars (square 200–500 sm2) shearing with the help of the specially designed device and laboratory experiments of rock samples, natural instrumental measurements of slipping blocks parametres with further application of the "reverse calculations" methods.

RESUME:

Dans I'article sur Ie materiel concret est considiree la methode originale de definition de la solidite du decrochement des plans affaiblis qui se basent sur les experiments naturelles de deplacement de petites fractions (surface jusqu'e 200–500 sm2) à l'aide d'installation specialement concre, des essais laboratoires sur Ie deplacement des peignes des roches et des mesures instrumentales des parametres des blocs de glissement avec à Ie suite d'un emploie de cette methode des "calculs inverses".

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG:

In diesem Artikel wird eine originelle Methodik der Ermittlung der Scherfestigkeit auf Trennflachen an einem konkreten Material behandelt, Diese Methodik gruendet sich auf der Durchfuehrung von Naturexperimenten zur Untersuchung der Gleitung von Pfeilern mit kleinen Abmessungen (ihre Flache betragt 200 bis 500 sm2) mit Hielfe speziell entwickelten Einrichtungen, von Laboratoriumversuchen zur Untersuchung der Gleitung von kleinen Felsplatten sowie von' Naturmessungen der Parameter von Erdrutschblöcken mit Meßinstrumenten und mit nachfolgenden Ausnutzung der Methode der "reversiblen" Berechnungen.

The problem of the determination of the shear strength by the plane of weakness is rather sharp for different types of mineral deposits developed by the open - cut method, road construction in mountainous regions, construction of hydro-technical objects and other kinds of forcing the jointed rock masses. This problem is especially important for evaluating of natural and artificial slope stability in hydrotechnical construction, where the possibility of its destruction must be fully eliminated as this can result in large scale possible undesirable consequences. Destruction of rock slopes on the highways and railroads in the mountainous regions are also undesirable as they are the only means of transportation between other regions. The ability of nonsignificant destruction is sometimes real during the open cut development of mineral resources, but only after the detailed economic study of t his method concerning the cost of providing stable pit operation during all the period of its exploitation. The solution of the rock mass stability problem in all these cases is based on the detailed engineer geological studies, where the study of fracturing and mass strength is of prime importance. Especially it is true for the study of the shear resistance by the plane of weakness, which includes the fractures of different origin, weak layers and interface of rocks with different lithology. Shear resistivity determination is known to develop in two directions - laboratory and field methods. In the latter case the research work is conducted mainly by the rock mass pillar shearing. Such tests, as a rule, are single as they are very labour and time consuming and besides very costly. But rock pillar shears do not permit to evaluate rockmass strength with high degree of reliability and to take into consideration the scale factor. Besides this method doesn't give the possibility to study the inclined and steep falling joints, interfaces of rocks and layers.

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