23 papers submitted to Session T4 are summarized in the order of slope stability, underground opening, dynamic behaviour, dam foundation, and fundamentals. More than two third of the papers satisfy the objectives of the session. A key how to predict failure is the appropriate interpretation of failure mechanism.


The subject of Session T4 is "Contribution of failures and incidents to the progress of Rock Engineering". The organizing committee expected to receive papers related with following contents: - Hazard scenarios in Rock Engineering; - Criteria for the detection of incidents and failures; - Determination of dam foundations; - Instability of underground structures - Case histories. Prior to the symposium, the reporter received 26 papers for this general report, and 3 papers were cancelled. The contents of 23 papers, which appear in the proceedings, are as follows: 10 papers on Slope Stability, 7 on Underground Opening, 2 on Dynamic Behaviour, 2 on Dam Foundation, and 2 on Fundamentals as mentioned below. Slope Stability:

  1. Stability Assessment of Slopes in closely Jointed Rock Masses by Pender & Free -New Zealand (p.863, Vol.1)

  2. Investigation of the Stability of Slopes in the Athenian Schist through Back Analysis of Slope Failures by Tsatsanifos -Greek (p.911, Vol.1)

  3. A Hypothesis for Reduced Resistance in Large Landslides by Kobayashi -Japan (p.835, Vol.l)

  4. A Real Time Slope Monitoring System for Open Pit Mines by Leung & Grant -Canada (p.847, Vol.l)

  5. A Rock Mass Classification System for the Design and Safety Analyses of Slopes by Hack & Price -The Netherlands (p.803, Vol.1)

  6. High Slope Stability in the Case of Improvement of the Rock Massif Mechanical Properties by Jasarevic, et al. -Croatia (p.817, Vol.1)

  7. Rock Slope Failures and Mechanisms of Failure in Marble Quarries (Alentejo- Portugal) by Pereira -UK & Costa -Portugal (p.871, Vol.1)

  8. Mudslides and Landslides at Kizlac Turkey by Smith. et al. -UK (p.887, Vol.1)

  9. Engineering Options for the Construction of Motorway across Unstable Slopes at Kizlac Turkey by Searle -UK (p.881, Vol.1)

  10. Stability Measures for Rock Slopes by Dixon & Cox -UK (p.779, Vol. 1) Underground Opening & Tunnelling

  11. Failure of Leresti Pressure Tunnel due to Internal Rock Mass Movements by Stematiu & Paunescu -Romania (p.903, Vol.1)

  12. The Evaluation of the Stability of Abandoned Calcarenite Mines in South Limburg, the Netherlands by Bekendam & Price -The Netherlands (p. 771, Vol. 1)

  13. The Significance of General and Structural Geology in Rock Engineering by Hansen -Sweden (p.811, Vol.1)

  14. Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment for Underground Structures by Duddeck -Germany (p.787, Vol.1)

  15. Roof Failure Mechanisms in Greek Underground Bauxite Mines by Economopoulos, et al. -Greece (p.795, Vol.1)

  16. Systems for Forecasting Geo-mechanical Hazards by the Construction and Exploitation of Engineering Structures by Yamshchikov -Russia (p.917, Vol.1)

  17. Roof Bolting under Dynamic Stress by Snuparek & Machalek -Czech Republic (p.895, Vol.1) Dynamic Behaviour

  18. Stability of Underground Openings in Burst-prone Ground by Kaiser, et al. -Canada (p.827, Vol.1)

  19. Effect of Large-scale Mining on the Geodynamic Behaviour of the Area.

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