The principles of designing multilevel systems operating in the monitoring mode to forecast hazardous geo-mechanical processes are considered. The model of these systems, the stages of their design and technical characteristics are substantiated. Included are also examples of particular workings implementing the automated control for the rock mass condition with respect to the characteristics of the geo-mechanical processes in the construction and operation of engineering structures.


Die Hauptprinzipien vom Aufbau der Multiniveausysteme fuer die Vorhersage der gefaehrlichen geomechanischen Prozesse werden betrachtet, die in Monitoringsregime arbeiten. Die Struktur solcher Systeme, die Entwurfetappen und technische Charakteristiken werden begruendet. Die Beispiele der konkreten Geraete werden angefuert, die die automatisierte Kontrolle des Spannungszustandes mit der Beruecksichtigung der Besonderheiten der geomechanischen Prozesse beim Bau und der Exploitation der Ingenieuranlagen realisieren.


Les grands principes de conctruction de systèmes diagnostiques à plusieurs niveaux de processus geo-mecaniques dangereux dans un massif de roches minières, fonctionnant en regime de monitoring sont presentes dans la communication. La sutructure de ces systèmes, les etapes de leur conception et leurs caracteristiques techniques sont motivees, Des examples sont cites des elaborations concrètes, realisant Ie contrôle automatise de l'etat du massif tenant compte des particularites des processus geomecaniques lors de la construction et de I'exploitation des structures techniques.


To solve ecological problems related to the deposits of useful minerals means to provide the technological services of a mining enterprise with the information on the conditions and parameters of the mine structure and the environment. At present the following factors are used to obtain geo-information on the mine structure in the process of mining minerals:

  1. Coal and metal mines geophysics allowing to reveal in advance various inhomogeneities in the geotechnical space.

  2. Diagnostics of geotechnical processes which allows to estimate the condition of the mine structure along with the localization of anomalous changes.

  3. System automatic forecast and control providing the early detection and prevention of hazardous mining and geological phenomena.

We can regard these three factors as geomechanical monitoring that is a comprehensive information system of observations on the changes of properties and conditions of the rock mass in the course of extracting minerals within the geotechnical space. The diagnostics of geotechnical processes allows to make periodic evaluations of the stress-deformation state of the rock mass, the quality of the mine production, to compare the results with the threshold values by the factors of stability and criteria of the dynamic phenomena development, to control the processes of man-made strengthening and unstrengthening of the rock mass, to estimate the parameters of the conditions of the mine structure due to the interaction with the working tool of the mining machine. On the other hand geo-mechanical monitoring allows to give best-fit solutions to mining and geological problems:

  1. The influence of mining operations on the environment.

  2. The influence of the natural phenomena on the mine structure.

  3. The influence of the human activity on the work of the whole structure and its construction units.

Geomechanical monitoring is designed on the basis of the system approach and represents techniques including an array of facilities transmission, reception and processing to the given algorithm and to access the properties and conditions of the mine structure, to take technological decisions and to watch the results of the corrective influences on the rock mass. The effectiveness of monitoring is connected with information, technical and mathematical support. Information support means to obtain diagnostic information, its storage and systematization; technical support is an array of facilities, devices, gauges, transducers, computers; mathematical support is algorithms and recognition programs.

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