Verification of the efficiency of operational and technical measures in a problem field of rockbursts, hydrogeology, engineering geology, and supports in long mine workings and impacts on surface and underground structures is performed on equivalent models in the laboratory for equivalent modelling. The laboratory is well equipped with Sophisticated modelling equipment and measuring devices and staffed with the highly experienced and qualified personnel.
Dans le laboratoire des essais sur modèles reduits qui est equipe d'appareils de mesure et d'essais de haute qualite et où travaillent les specialistes qualifies pour ce genre de travail on effectue la verification de l'effectivite des me sures techniques et d'exploitation dans les domaines suivantes: des coups de roche, la hydrologie, la geologie d'ingenieur, le soutènement des longs chantiers de mine, des effets de l'exploitation aux objets dans les mines et sur la surface.
Im Labor des aquivalenten Modellverfahrens, das sehr gut vom Gesichtspunkt der Methodikaus vorbereitet ist, ist mit einer sehr guten Meβtechnik einer guten Qualitat ausgestattet. Die Spezialisten dieses Labors sind fahig, alle Möglichkeiten der Methoden des aquivalenten Modellverfahrens auszunutzen. Es wird hier die Modellbeglaubigung der Wirkung von betriebstechnischen Sicherheitsmaβnahmenim Problembereich der Gebitgsschlage, Hydrogeologie, Ingenieurgeologie, Grubenausbauten der langen Grubenbauten und der Einfluesse des Kohlenabbausauf Oberflachen- und Grubenobjekte durchgefuehrt.
The qualitative solution of geo-mechanical problems by methods of equivalent modelling requires the fulfillment of methodical and technical prerequisites. The laboratory should be staffed with the highly experienced specialists who are capable to apply the method of equivalent modelling. The modelling materials of a good quality are needed which enable an appropriate modelling of geological structures, including the quality of discontinuity planes and to cope with a lack of sufficient information about the rock mass. The modelling frames of a good quality are required, for some tasks the flat frames are sufficient but, however, in some case it is inevitable to use spatial frames, along with a reliable and sufficiently precise technique for sensing and recording process of stress and deformation changes, including the computer processing. 1.1 Methodical preparation The basic assumption of qualitative modelling is the application of good modelling materials which can simulate the deformation process within the complete extente of strain characteristics, and which correspond with their rheologic properties to simulated rocks. This problem has been extensively solved through a systematic research programme (31), and now similar materials for the simulation of elastic and plastic rocks and soils are available in the laboratory. No less important is the field of a precise modelling of geologic structures of the modelled area. In the opinion of the authors it is inevitable to model all planes of disconuities and moreover, to simulate objectively their quality which can be charaterized, for example, by the friction coefficient, and to simulate the tectonic, failure as well as (28, 30). The generally well recognized problem includes the inssufficient information about the simulated environment. This problem has been solved in the laboratory through the so called verification of the model, which is based on the selection of a suitable phenomenon which, according to our experience is always present and which can be observed in the model. This phenomenon can, be, for example, the subsidence or convergence of the selected long mine working. Provided that the phenomenon in the model corresponds qualitatively and quantitaveily to the phenomenon the modelled environment, we assume that the model simulates in an acceptable manner the situation being modelled; provided that this phenomenon occurs or does not occur in a different quality, we perform a modification by means of increasing or decreasing the pressure in order to simulate as close as possible the situation in situ.