This summarising paper proposed methods of treatment and interpretation of full-scale data measurement in underground openings, in other words the experimental analytic methods of lining computation. The experimental analytic methods of designing mono- and multilayer linig of circular cross-section openings, of monolithic concrete and reinforced concrete lining of an arbitrary cross-section openings, of the lining constructed in stages are considered.
On expose des methodes du traitement et de l'interpretation des donnèes des mesures dans les galeries du fond, auterement dit - methodes experimtntales analytiques du calcul du soutènement. On a expose des methodes experimentales analytiques du calcul du soutenement à une couche et à plusieurs couches des galerie à section circulaire, du soutènement en beton et en beton arme à section quelconque, du soutènement posant en etape.
1m Vortrag werden die Bearbeitungs - und Interpretierungsmethoden der Naturmessungen in den Untertagebauten, m. a. W. experimentell analytische Methoden der Berechnung des Ausbaus, dargelegt. Im Vortrag werden experimentell-analytische Methoden der Berechnung des Ein- und Mehrschichtenausbaus der Untertagebauten runden Querschnitts, des Monolithbeton - und Ersenbetonausbaus der Untertagebauten willkuerlichen Querschnitts, des etappenweise errichteten Ausbaus dargelegt.
There has always been a tendency to design the linings of underground structures on the basis of rock pressure measured under full-scale conditions. In the past the measured pressure had been applied directly to lining according to design method based on the division of loads into "active" and "passive". However, that method contradicts the data of full-scale measurement to a considerable degree. Measurements indicate that the magnitude of pressure along the perimetres of the cross-section are substantially influenced not only by rock mass characteristics but also by lining parametres. That contradiction is rid off due to design methods based on the principle of contact interaction of the rock masses and the linings being applied (Fotieva, 1974; Bulychev, 1989). According to those methods the lining and rock massif are considered to be elements of the integral deformable system. The design methods are based on the solutions of elasticity theory contact problems for an arbitrary shape lining in a linearly deformable rock massif (Bulychev & Fotieva, 1988), the design scheme of which is shown in Fig. 1. The experimental analytic methods of lining computation are based upon the solutions of corresponding elasticity theory plane contact problems in a reverse statement. Those methods realise the back analysis of field measurement of normal contact stresses between rock mass and lining (rock pressure), normal tangential stresses (or strains) in the lining, displacements and convergences of some points of the lining cross-section, etc. The advantage of the proposed methods is in determining the values which do not depend on the designing support and can be used for computation of another construction of support under similar geological engineering conditions and with a similar construction procedure.
Multilayer and combination monolithic and sectional-monolithic lining structures including, among others, layers of ribbed cast-iron or reinforced concrete tubbings, are made use of to support the walls of tunnels and vertical shafts under complex mining and geological engineering conditions, when the massif is composed of weak rock. Such structures are designed in the form of a multilayer ring consisting of concentric layers made of different materials, that reinforced an opening in a linearly deformable medium (Bulychev, 1989).