This paper deals with the exploration of failure modes in rock and rock masses, starting with extension failure in deep tunnels, followed by analysis of the limited heights of cliffs, mountain walls and mountains. Here, tensile failure applies to the cliffs and mountain walls, since cohesive strength is too high, and shear strength applies to the maximum mountain heights since confined compression strength is too high. In each case it is the weakest link that applies, as in morphological processes.

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.