ABSTRACT:

The authors have been concerned with time dependent properties of the tuffs of Cappadocia Region where many semi-underground or underground antique and modern structures exist. Tuff samples obtained from outcrops in the localities of Derinkuyu, Avanos, Ürgüp, Özkonak and Zelve. A series of Brazilian, 3-point bending and uniaxial compression creep experiments were carried under both dry and saturated conditions. During these tests, Acoustic Emission (AE) measurements were also conducted to investigate the fracturing phenomenon. The authors present the outcomes of the creep experiments on these tuffs and discuss their implications for the long-term behaviour of rock masses associated with antique rock structures.

1 INTRODUCTION

Many semi-underground or underground antique and modern structures exist in Cappadocia Region of Turkey. Most of these structures were excavated more than, at least, 1500 years. These structures are the best examples of long term performances of man-made structures in the field of rock engineering.

An experimental study on the long term behavior of the Cappadocian tuffs in association with the long term stability of various antique underground or semi-underground structures was been initiated by the authors as a part of an international joint project between Japan and Turkey (Aydan et al. 1999a).

This experimental programme has been continued by the authors. Besides uniaxial creep experiments, a series of Brazilian and 3-point bending and uniaxial compression creep experiments were carried under both dry and saturated conditions. During these tests, Acoustic Emission (AE) measurements were also conducted to investigate the fracturing phenomenon. Furthermore, some index creep tests were carried out using impression creep testing technique. Tuff samples were obtained from outcrops in the localities of Derinkuyu, Avanos, Ürgüp, Özkonak and Zelve.

In this study, the outcomes of experimental tests on tuff samples under different creep conditions are presented and their implications are discussed with the consideration of long-term performance of many antique semi-underground and undergound structures in Cappadocia region.

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