Abstract

This paper summaries case history of rock engineering projects in China. The dynamic and optimal design methods has been established and applied for some of the projects. It includes two flowcharts. One is methods for rock mechanics modelling and rock engineering design analysis (Feng & Hudson, 2011) and another is the updated flowchart for the rock engineering design process (Feng & Hudson 2011). Two typical illustrative examples have been given to applicability of the developed design methods. One is stability analysis of permanent shiplock slope of Three Gorges Project, China, and another is stability control of rockburst risk mitigation of long headrace tunnels at Jinping II hydropower Station, China. Finally, some conclusions have been given.

Introduction

China is the largest developing country in the world. It is forecasted that its GDP growth rate will be around 7% during the period 2014–2020. Such rapid economic development has meant increasing demand for infrastructure development, including many largescale rock engineering projects. This explosive growth in the economy and infrastructure development will continue and expand well into the next decade and beyond. According to the national medium- and longterm development programs, more than 20 large-scale hydraulic power plants, such as Xiaowan, Longtan, Jinpin I & II, Xiluodu, Xiangjiaba, Baihetan and Wudongde, etc. (Table 1), with a total capacity of more than 50,000MW, have been, are being or will be constructed in western China within 20 years.

The South-to-North Water Transfer Projects was conceived in order to ameliorate the conditions leading to a short supply of water in northern China. This grand scheme is divided into three water transfer route projects: the East Route Project, the Middle Route Project and the West Route Project. The Eastern Route Project runs along the eastern seacoast of China and transfers water from the mouth of Yangtze river to Tianjin city. It consists of three phases with a maximum transferablewater quantity of 17 billionm3. The first phase will be started around 2010 and finalized around 2020. The remaining two phases will be finalized by 2050. The first phase consists of 7 tunnels, with lengths ranging from 13.6 to 73 km and the overburden ranging from 300–1100 m. The total length for the first phase of the project is 260.3 km, of which tunnel length accounts for a total of 244.1 km. The Middle Route Project aims to transfer water to Beijing, with its maximum transferable water quantity measuring in at about 13 billionm3. The construction period of the first phrase lasted from 2003 to 2010, with a total investment of about 12 billion USD. The Western Route Project will be established to transfer water from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to the upstream of theYellow River. The maximum transferable water quantity is about 14.8 billion m3.

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