During excavations in the rock mass for constructions of roads and buildings in urban areas, the only parameter that can be predicted is the excavation slope. In urban areas excavations some-times have to be made vertically with demanding support systems, which require strict technical construction. The deformability and strength properties of the rock mass are determined from geotechnical investigation and the use of the rock mass classification system. It is then possible to make the geotechnical model and perform the stability and stress-strain analyses. It is first assumed that the rock mass slope is unsupported during excavation. If a low initial factor of safety is obtained, the stability analysis should include a support system. The interactive design is applied throughout construction of the support system and includes extensive monitoring. A re-design of the excavation and additional support measures are required when monitoring imply on significant deviations of defined conditions.

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.