Two examples of inverse problem technique application to geomechanical tasks concerned with rock mass characterization were considered. An approach to estimating geometric parameters of underground voids formed in soil under natural or anthropogenic influence was offered. Irreversible deformation of soil is modeled using discrete element method. The formulated inverse problem on finding void geometry and occurrence depth by the data on configuration of the subsidence trough has unique solution. Based on geomechanical model of gas migration in block coal bed, the inverse problem was formulated for estimation of diffusion-capacity parameters (gas content, coefficients of diffusion and mass exchange) by the pressure measured in degassing borehole. The numerical analysis of cost function using synthetic input data revealed the necessity of the additional information on coal bed gas-kinetic properties for the inverse problem to be unambiguous solvable.

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