Abstract

In recent years, demand for infrastructure development is increasing due to satisfy the high rates of economic growth in Indonesia. Therefore, it is desired to introduce the chemical grouting which is widely used in Japan as ground improvement in underground construction. The chemical grouting constructions have been prohibited since the accidents, because of polymeric chemicals pollution. Considering it, in order to reduce environmental issues, sodium silicate chemicals as lowest toxicity material is considered in the chemical grouting. Furthermore, there is no study about sodium silicate chemicals in Indonesia. Hence, in this paper, applicability of the chemical grouting of sodium silicate chemicals in Indonesia is discussed from the aspects of its functions. In this study, the chemical grouts were injected into the samples of Indonesian sands. After solidification of the chemical grouts, permeability and strength of the samples have been measured by falling the head hydraulic conductivity test and UCS test. As the conclusion, the study shows that chemical grouting is applicable to improve Indonesian sand.

1.
Introduction

Infrastructure development in Indonesia has been evolving to an advanced level by solving complex problems. In the infrastructure development area, construction work is increasing along with government expenditure budget. Infrastructure projects such as train railways, highways, ports and tunnels are required to strengthen effective support for countermeasures for construction of the project in Indonesia.

Since 1950, the demand of chemical grouting material, such as acrylamide chemical grouting, were increased for soil stabilization in all around the World, including Japan and Indonesia, owing to the ability to increase load-bearing capacity, arrest settlement and lateral movement of foundations, and control the flow of water in earthwork engineering projects (Fig. 1). However, a series of environmental issues have arisen in the use of this type of chemical grouting. In 1974, it has been reported that acrylamide chemical grouting contaminated citizen's water source, which cause several people suffered from drink the water. One year later, in 1975, a same case was happened in Indonesia. These cases urged the government of Indonesia to issue a policy of banning the use of chemical grouting material for any construction and/or engineering works in Indonesia.

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