This paper presents a discussion on technical aspects related to development of shallow water offshore hydrocarbon fields in areas with relatively mild ice conditions. The Bohai Bay of China represents such conditions, as does also the Northern Caspian Sea, although the design ice conditions in this area in general is considerable more severe than in the Bohai Bay. The main emphasis of this paper lies on the use of jackets and jack-ups in areas with ice, with particular emphasis on the ice loading and the introduction of a cone in the waterline area to limit the ice loads and also the dynamic effects associated with the crushing of ice against vertical platform legs.
Technology for safe development of offshore areas with moderate iceconditions is a key concern for safe development of offshore hydrocarbon fields in the Northern Caspian Sea and in the Bohai Bay of China. As it is recognized that areas with ice are very vulnerable to pollution, it is of particular importance to reduce the risk through selection of appropriate technology. This is indeed the case as the risk is proportional to probability of an incident multiplied by the potential consequences of the incident. To be able to develop and select appropriate technology, it is, furthermore, of importance to be able to calculate the design actions for safe design of structures. Our approach in this paper is therefore to discuss the design aspects with attention to actions (i.e. loads from the different ice features on different geometrical shapes) and then to discuss structural forms that are suited for operations in an Arctic climate.
Different types of steel structures can be applied for the development of offshore hydrocarbon fields in areas with ice.