This research presents a comparison data report on surface-water seasonal fluctuation for infiltrating water intake; estimates how bottom ice and bed-material/sediments freezing causes reduction in infiltrative water-intake capacity in frazil ice water. It recommends method on quantification of ground and surface water interactions for more improved, reliable and qualified water supply system design.
Fresh water supply for national consumption is critical for our country. Underground supplies are generally of better bacterial quality and contain less organic material than surface water. Ground water is medically preferred for national consumption. It is established by Russian legislation. Alluvium water (or aquifer) makes 60% of all developed connate ground water resources. This water can be withdrawn by infiltrative or aquifer piping methods. Infiltrative water intake constructions are the ground water intake facilities located close to water bodies. Surface waters withdrawal provides the most capacity of water intake. During the vast housing construction period in the former USSR (60-70th of the XX - th century) the water supply problem was of the first priority. Later our country was overwhelmed with global project of rivers' channels reverse and huge water storage facilities construction. The ground water intake process faces periodical problematic seasons when many negative factors meet (e.g. low water table level, freezing). If these factors are neglected for intake design, the surface and ground waters changeable interaction data increases general level of intake capacity. Long-term rivers field tests have been summarized in present work. This study of surface and underground waters interaction in infiltration intake areas demonstrates that seasonal filtration coefficient is determined by weather and both surface and ground water table level records, sheet ice in coastal and shallow waters, seasonal aquifer freezing as well as infiltration resistance rate between surface and ground waters in relatively dry period.