A method for the calculation of total horizontal wave forces by irregular broken waves on vertical wall was developed, which was based on physical model test, dimensionless analysis and assessment of real construction. The method for the determination of pressure distribution of horizontal forces on vertical wall as well as uplift: forces on the bottom of the wall are also recommended. The agreement between calculated results by this method and real construction is quit good.


Depends on wave parameters, the size of vertical wall and rubble mound foundation, in front of a vertical wall, there are three kinds of waves: namely standing waves, breaking waves and broken waves. The breaking waves occur when the height of rubble mound foundation is big enough, which may give larger impact force and may cause more problem on the safety and stability of vertical wall. The broken waves appear when the rubble mound foundation is small or underground and the depth before vertical wall is small, which will break usually at the points of antinodes before the wall. As well known, the investigation of wave forces by breaking or broken waves on vertical wall is still not enough. On the International Workshop on Wave Barriers in Deepwaters held in Japan 1994, the interaction of breaking waves with vertical walls has been discussed in detailed and more research are expected in the future. Based on regular wave test and analysis, Xou and Li(1965) developed a method for the calculation of broken wave forces on vertical walls, which has been practical used in some real breakwater design and construction in China and was adopted in the Chinese harbor Engineering Design Specification (CHI!, DS) in 1974. So far the Goda's unified method (1973, 1974) has been widely recommended in the world.

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