The present paper briefly traces the advances made in the last twenty years, in the understanding of ice- structure interaction and design force estimation processes. The particular aim of this paper is to identify from various experimental data, the common parameters that influence the variation of ice strength or stress or pressure and to include those influences in the prediction of design ice forces on vertical structures. Ice force on vertical structures, from this work, is expressed in terms of the dimensionless pressure (Pc / u2 ρi) which varies inversely, as a function of dimensionless strain-rate, (defined as u2 / g 1c), and is given as a family of curves for various ranges of aspect ratio, (defined as B / lc). This work is of considerable improvement to our earlier works on this topic using similar approach.


Although funding for research efforts in the area of ice mechanics/engineering has reached a temporary peak in the late eighties and has somewhat slowed down recently, the elements of excitement for ice mechanics/engineering research are still definitely present. For example, the IAHR Working Group on Ice, in 1988, asked various experts on ice-structure interaction research to list, in order of importance, what they thought were the mechanical and physical properties, which must be scaled for model tests on ice interaction process. The outcome of this exercise was that there was no general agreement in this area, which indicated the lack of understanding of the important processes taking place in ice-structure interaction (Timco, 1992). In a similar survey, Sanderson (1989), asked various experts to provide an estimate of expected and extreme ice loads for three example scenarios - first-year ice, multi-year ice and iceberg ice. The range of answers provided by the experts, for "any given scenario was wide.

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