In this paper, a CFD and DEM coupling method is established to simulate the ship-ice-water interaction and calculate the resistance of ship navigating in ice floes. The CFD method is adopted to calculate the fluid solution of ship-water interaction. Ice floes are formed of spherical particles with the parallel bonding model and the ship-ice and ice-ice interaction are simulated by DEM. For a polar vessel sailing in ice floes, the resistance, ice breaking and ice motions are obtained. Compared with model test results from ice tank, the accuracy of the coupling method for ship resistance calculation is verified. Then, a series of simulations are carried out to investigate the influence of ship speed and ice concentration on ship resistance.


With the increasing trend of global warming and the accelerated melting of Arctic sea ice in recent years, the navigation of the Arctic sea route has become more available, which brings substantial commercial value to Arctic shipping. Navigation in ice floes is a typical working condition for ice-going ships, the resistance for this type of scenario is a significant consideration from the perspective of design and optimization. Researchers have investigated ice-going ship resistance by theoretical analysis and developed empirical formulas based on full-scale trials and ship model tests. For ships continuously breaking level ice, Lindqvist (1989) divided ice resistance into three components: bending, crushing, and submersion, and proposed a calculation formula. Later, Keinonen and Browne (1991), Riska et al. (1998) also developed ice resistance predicting formulas based on ice trials. Dobrodeev and Sazonov (2019) developed a method to calculate the ice resistance of ships sailing in brash ice channel. These formulas can be used to estimate ice resistance roughly and quickly, but the accuracy of results is not sufficient for specific hull forms and ice conditions. Although model testing in ice tank is the most reliable way to investigate the resistance of ships sailing in ice-covered water, due to the high cost of model tests and the rapid development of computational methods, numerical simulation becomes an alternative.

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