Changes in the physical state of fluid caused by the temperature in saturated soil is an important thermodynamic phenomenon affecting soil and shallow hydrate reservoirs. During the fluid-soil interaction, once the shale formation is flooded, the compressive strength of the mud-shale decreases rapidly with the increase of water content, and the creep rate increases significantly with the increase of water content. In the proposed approach, a fluid-soil interaction experiment was developed and, a thermo-mechanical numerical model for the transient and instantaneous heat transfer process was developed in ABAQUS which is used to predict the soil temperature and fluid state variation.


The dynamic change of liquid state from water to ice caused by solar radiation and air temperature variations and heat transfer affects the physical composition of the soil (Sun et al., 2019; Janna, 2009), and the stability of structures in polar and cold regions (Li et al., 2009). Several authors (Poudel et al., 2012; Farouki, 1981; Taylor and Luthin,1976; Noor, 2023) have studied the influence of low ground temperatures on shallow soil layers.

By analyzing the calculation model of the annual temperature variation according to the variation of depths, and the number of days of the year proposed by Hillel (1980), this model can be considered as a purely thermal model taking into account only the depth, conductivity, and heat capacity of the soil. Firstly, as part of this study, it is considered that the model of soil temperature variations is instantaneous (considering that the temperature can change at any time of the day), which differs from the thermal model of Hillel's, which based only on annual (considering that the temperature remains constant throughout the day) and thermal. In contrast to the analytical results of the method proposed by Hillel, the proposed numerical model in this study has the following thermo-mechanical parameters of the soil: density, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, height, thickness, and specific heat capacity. These parameters will provide a better prediction of the instantaneous temperature variation of the soil layers and natural gas hydrate reservoirs with respect to the variation of depth and time.

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