The wave impact on piers is a concerning problem for coastal bridges. In this study, the coastal bridge pier is simplified to a two-dimensional fixed submerged obstacle, and the solitary wave interaction with it is simulated by the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code SPHinXsys. SPHinXsys is based on the weakly-compressible SPH and invokes the low-dissipation Riemann solver for alleviating numerical noises. The capability of SPHinXsys in reproducing the physics of solitary propagating through the obstacle is demonstrated by published experimental data. Through the comparison with the numerical results produced by the projection-based Consistent Particle Method (CPM), the accuracy of the two methods in simulating this problem is commented. Based on the simulation results, the features of the wave-structure process are examined.


More and more sea-crossing bridges have been built in the world for connecting important coastal cities. Such mega bridging projects are subjected to ocean wave impacts, which possess a huge threat to the safe operations of sea-crossing bridges. A tsunami is a kind of disastrous wave that can apply destructive actions onto coastal bridges and should be carefully considered in the structure design and maintenance. In this context, this study simplifies a bridge pier to a two-dimensional (2D) fixed submerged obstacle and investigate its interaction with the solitary wave, which represents the tsunami due to their resemblance.

With the rapid development of computer hardware and numerical algorithms, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling has been an important tool in analyzing wave structure interaction problems. Among the various numerical models, the Lagrangian particle methods have been rapidly developed and widely used due to their intrinsic advantages in handling large deformation, moving interface, etc. Typical particle methods can be categorized into the weakly-compressible methods such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) (Monaghan 1994) and the Finite Particle Method Zhang et al. (2020), as well as the projection-based methods such as the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method (Khayyer et al. 2019), Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ISPH) (Chow et al. 2018), Meshless Local Petrov Galerkin (MLPG) (Ma 2005) and Consistent Particle Method (CPM) (Koh et al. 2012). The fundamental theories, numerical technologies and engineering applications of particle methods have been obtaining significant developments, which are comprehensively summarized in recent reviews (Vacondio et al. 2020, Gotoh et al. 2021, Luo et al. 2021, Sriram and Ma 2021).

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