During their service, ice-class vessels are exposed to ice collision loads. It is essential to estimate ice loads during ice-structure interactions considering ice failure modes and understand ice-loaded structures' response. Such ice loads according to various ice features (location, time of year, environment conditions) and ice failure due to collisions should be considered in the design state of ice-going vessels. In this study, a numerical model of sea level-ice - structure interaction was developed using the commercial software package ABAQUS in conjunction with adopting the Drucker-Prager (DP) yield criterion combining with a ductile damage model. The developed numerical model was validated by comparing existing relevant test data and other simulation results in the open literature for a rigid body. A good correlation between them was achieved. Based on the validated model, a parametric study on ice-structure collisions was then performed to investigate the effect of some parameters, including friction, velocity, sloping angle, and structural flexibility, on ice loads.


Due to global warming, Arctic sea ice is melting rapidly, resulting in the Arctic route's potential opening. Hence, a new transport route will be navigable for the ongoing vessels, shortening the distance between Europe and Asia by a third (Melia et al., 2017). With the Arctic route and the Arctic environment, the possibility of developing a vast amount of submarine energies such as oil and natural gas will be increased. In the design stage of such ice-ship/vessels, various ice types should be considered carefully since ice is characterized by the location, time of year, and environmental conditions (Kim et al., 2019). Continuous ice cover or broken ice pieces are essential in terms of ship operation. Vessels that navigate on continuous ice cover experience high resistance because they need to break down and push out the ice sheets. Fig. 1 shows a photograph of an ice-class ship navigated in the continuous ice cover and caused ice failures and rotating of ice floes at the ship's side due to interactions.

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