Abstract

Cyber security is most important for Arctic cities and rural areas as the Arctic region is very dependent on safe communication due to limited infrastructure and very long distances between populated locations. The paper discusses available networks and will emphasize the vulnerability of such networks. Recent situations where the GPS net was "jammed" are presented and the consequences such disturbances lead to, and could lead to, are reviewed. Mitigation measures to secure Cyber communications will be discussed and the needs for backup will be underlined. In case alternative communication systems cannot be termed reliable, there is a need to fund the development of secure systems for communication in the arctic region.

Introduction

A focus on the European High North; that is the northernmost areas of Norway, Finland and Sweden, is relevant as the effects of disabled infrastructure are larger in the Arctic region due to remoteness and hard climate. The northern part of Russia shares the same challenges. For the discussion of Cyber security, also the offshore area should be included in the discussion. The Barents Euro-Arctic Region is shown in Figure 1. The area covers 1.75 million km2, and the population is 5.3 million, of which most lives in cities. In the Scandinavian countries, the population of the Barents region is 1.8 million.

Figure 2 shows the region termed "Sápmi" (the land where the Sámi population lives.) Except for the coastal area, where there are cities and other community centers, this region is very sparsely populated. The area covers about 400,000 km2. The Sámi population is estimated to be around 80.000 persons.

When discussing Cyber security in the Arctic region, we should also have included Greenland, Northern Canada and Alaska as well as the remaining parts of Russian Arctic. We will, however, concentrate on the Scandinavian part of the Barents Euro-Arctic. This region is very rich in minerals, industry based on fishing and on oil and gas (offshore in the Barents Sea). The people living here have in the past been, and are at present, tolerant to harsh, cold and dark winter climate, remoteness and lack of communication reliability.

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