This paper addresses the problem of roll control for X-rudder underwater vehicle; in which all of the rudders can be operated independently. To realize the roll control of X-rudder underwater vehicle; a roll control map for manual remote control and a motion controller with roll dynamics for autonomous control are proposed. For the motion controller; it is composed of a dynamics controller and a control allocator. The dynamics controller is based on PID control method and the control allocator is based on SQP algorithm. By conducting field tests; the functionality and superiority of the proposed control methods are verified.


With the progress of marine engineering equipment technology; various underwater robotics vehicles (URVs) are widely used in the ocean engineering field in the past few decades. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is one of the most widely used underwater equipment; which has played an important role in oceanographic surveys; underwater monitoring and inspection; etc.

In order to further improve the performance of underwater vehicles to explore and develop the ocean; people have designed various new actuators which play a crucial role in the maneuverability and hydrodynamic performance of AUV; such as the X-rudder. X-rudder's layout is like the shape of X and distinguished from the cruciform rudder (Dubbioso; 2017). The rudders of X-rudder can be operated independently. Compared with the cruciform rudder; the X-rudder has the advantages of higher rudder effect; better maneuverability; lower noise; better insubmersibility and so on. However; the control of the X-rudder is complicated; every control surface of the X-rudder will contribute its effort to both heading and pitch; it was not widely extended to application at the beginning of its birth. With the development of software and hardware of automation; X-rudder was successfully introduced by Sweden in Gotland-class submarine; Japan in Soryu-class submarine and Germany in Type 212A submarine to improve the maneuverability and safety of submarine and meet the demand of modern war. Besides; there is also a growing application of X-rudder underwater vehicles in scientific research and other civilian fields (Nakamura; 2019).

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