In this paper, the numerical model of level ice is developed in the framework of finite elements and the water is considered by SPH method, the numerical method is established by adopting the contact algorithm to calculate the contact forces between finite elements and water particles. Then the icebreaking process of the polar tanker is calculated and its navigation in open water simulated by CFD numerical simulation based on viscous theory. The resistance of a polar tanker under multiple load cases is predicted.
The melting speed of ice in Arctic region is accelerating because of the changes in climate, which makes the marine transportation in Arctic region possible. The polar tanker will play an important role and its full route includes both ice area and open water area. And the demand of the polar tanker with self-icebreaking ability is increasing recently.
For a polar tanker, the comprehensive performance in both of the ice area and the open water area should be considered in the design phase. In the resistance prediction of ice-breaking, finite element method is a commonly used numerical calculation methods. Compared with the oversimplification of the model in the empirical formula and the long period and high cost of the model test, it can take into account the effects of sea ice failure modes and more ship form parameters. The Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) has found great attention in the applied numerical fracture literature to solve problems of multiple cracking brittle and quasi-brittle solids during impacts and failure loading. Then the CZM was extended into sophisticated numerical algorithms in the framework of finite elements, termed the Cohesive Element Model (CEM), for the simulation of ice-structure interactions, (Konuk et al, 2009). Arne Gürtner et al. (2009) used the numerical method to simulate the action to a lighthouse, the simulation results indicate that the numerical method captures many of the qualitative observation as well as quantitatively derives comparable global ice loads to the lighthouse to those of the selected ice event. Wang et al. (2008) developed a collision model of crushable ice based on nonlinear dynamic finite element and analyze the ice load of a FLNG ship using commercial code DYTRAN. Yang et al. (2008) adopted the method of fluid-structure interaction and established the nonlinear finite element model of collision between ship and ocean platform by taking sea ice as medium.