Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS) technology was developed to reduce anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) into atmosphere. As the energy sector accounts for around two-thirds of Green House Gases emissions (GHG), coming from fossil fuels utilization; the first logical application for CCS was in power generation; for many decades to come, forecasts of global energy demand indicate this fossil fuel dependence will continue. However in the last years, also in other industrial sectors the CCS technology is growing as an option to get emissions cuts at low cost without revamping production technologies.
The estimated growth of the CO2 transportation network, to meet the climate challenge with CCS, is very large compared to the actual carbon dioxide pipelines network having an overall length (around 6000 km). Recently, some new stimuli have came up as for application of CCS in refineries, cement plants, gasification uses, cement and iron industries, or fertilizers, chemical feedstock. Furthermore offshore pipeline could enhance the industrial deployment of CCS by avoiding the NIMBY effect of onshore storage sites selection.