The unexpected formation of gas hydrates during production and transportation processes in petroleum industries has caused serious problems, blocking oil and gas pipelines with safety hazards. To cope with this trouble, the gas hydrate community has searched for hydrate inhibitors that have great performance and cost effectiveness. Recently, the ionic liquids (ILs) have been suggested as novel hydrate inhibitors that are able to act in both thermodynamic and kinetic ways which are designated as dual-function inhibitors. In this study, we suggest a non-ionic liquid compound, morpholine as a dual-function inhibitor. We observed that this inhibitor shifts the hydrate phase equilibrium curve and reduces the hydrate formation rate as well. The formation kinetics of gas hydrates in the presence of morpholine was found to be better than two comparators of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and polyvinylpyrrolidone. In addition, a series of microscopic analyses (powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state 13C NMR and Raman spectroscopy) were adopted to identify their crystal structure and molecular behavior during hydrate formation. Such inhibition effects of morpholine are thought to be mainly attributed to the nucleophilicity of the ring compound forming hydrogen bonds between surrounding water molecules. Moreover, it can be speculated that the more energy is required to form the structure II hydrate in the presence of morpholine instead of the structure I CH4 hydrate with milder formation conditions.
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Effect of a Dual-Function Inhibitor on Gas Hydrate Formation
Lim, Dongwook, Park, Seongmin, Ro, Hyeyoon, Lee, Jong-Won, Kang, Hyery, Kwon, Minchul, and Huen Lee. "Thermodynamic and Kinetic Effect of a Dual-Function Inhibitor on Gas Hydrate Formation." Paper presented at the The Twenty-fourth International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, Busan, Korea, June 2014.
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