The transport system of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation consists from the different types of transport and transport network. It includes railway, pipeline, road and airline systems which pass through the polar circle to the North. There are over 100 ports and transshipping points on islands and coasts of the Arctic Ocean. The Northern Sea Route (NSR) and nuclear icebreaking fleet are the core elements of the Russian Arctic transport system. The authors provide the description of the prospective directions of Russian Arctic transport system development. The following priorities had been formulated among the major problems of the Russian Arctic transport system: escalating of quantity and types of vessels using for cargo and civil shipping in Arctic regions; strengthening of coastal infrastructure of the NSR and strengthening of security system of marine and river shipping; modernization of cargo transshipment bases and land-water types of transport; reorientation of icebreakers escort fleet for supporting of offshore moorings functioning, shipping in difficult ice conditions, monitoring and rescue services. Research and working out of measures for the serving of mentioned and other problems are directed to strengthen the positions and the sovereignty of the Russian Federation in Arctic regions and for using of the competitive advantages of the NSR, as the largest transport artery connecting continents and countries, located in pools of three oceans - Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific.
Sustainable and effective functioning of a transport complex of the Arctic regions is a necessary condition of economy growth and unique natural resources development in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Transport system of Russian Arctic is a base for the integral activity in the region. Efficient development of transport complex unsure improvement of conditions and standards of living in the Arctic and strengthen national safety of Russia in Macro Region.