After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, early tsunami warning systems started being developed in many regions as a worthy measure to save lives. Some people do run to high ground after they watch a tsunami approaching the coast or hear the sound of a striking tsunami, but a key to successful evacuation is to provide evacuation sites in or near the residential areas. Therefore, in addition to developing tsunami warning systems, it is important to set up evacuation sites in tsunami inundation zones. It also very important to disseminate tsunami knowledge, that is, to enhance and improve people's awareness of and preparedness for tsunamis.
The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami vividly caught the attention of the world, far beyond the areas impacted by the disaster. After the tragic event, international cooperation and collaboration have sprung up to reduce the impacts of future tsunamis. Regional tsunami warning systems such as the Pacific Tsunami Warning System are being developed in the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and Caribbean regions under the auspices of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). However, even though tsunami warning systems have been established, unfortunate cases have occurred when tsunami alerts did not perform their function effectively. For instance, a tsunami alert was not transmitted to coastal-area residents before the tsunami's arrival at the time of the 2006 Java Island Earthquake, and no national warning system existed in the Solomon Islands at the time of the 2007 earthquake and tsunami. Still, it is noteworthy that some people evacuated and saved their lives without tsunami warnings. Further, a new type of disaster arose as a result of the 2010 Chilean Tsunami, and that is the tsunami-induced debris of many shipping containers. In previous events, a number of containers was flushed, causing concern that tsunami debris might increase damage and disaster.