The efficiency of pontoon-type breakwaters can be expressed by the transmission coefficient, KT. Physical modeling of pontoon-type breakwaters was conducted using a 2D wave flume at the Ocean Wave Research Laboratory (FCEE ITB) in Bandung Indonesia. To identify the coefficient KT, two designs of floating breakwaters with different dimensions were investigated. Environmental conditions and dimensions of pontoons were scaled considering Froude Similarity. Wave heights (H) and periods (T) of data were observed both manually and digitally using wave probes. The relationship between KT and nondimensional variables obtained are apparently valid for limited conditions within the experimental data range.


LNG exploration site at Bintuni Bay, Indonesia has a combo dock facility which allows ship berthing and LNG loading from the refinery site. Berthing operation needs calm wave conditions that can be achieved by installing breakwater in front of the facilities, where the water depths vary from 6 m to 9 m. Two designs of pontoon-type floating breakwaters (FB) have been investigated; namely Eastern Traveller and Eastern Galaxy. The hydrodynamic of FBs is an extremely complex problem, especially in the case of a moving structure. There are several studies dealing with the hydrodynamic problem of FBs in deep and intermediate water depth. Linear models and analytical solutions, which describe the full hydrodynamic problem, have been developed by Hwang and Tang (1986), Williams and McDougal (1991), Drimer et al. (1992), Bhatta and Rahman (1993), Isaacson and Bhat (1998), Williams et al. (2000) and Kriezi et al. (2001). Studies on the forces of FBs mooring system had been investigated by numbers of researchers (Niwinski et al., 1982;Yamamoto, 1981; Isaacson and Bhat, 1994; Yoon et al., 1994, Kato et al., 1966). However, the experimental studies are rather limited, performed in small-scale facilities, and are only used for regular wave forcing.

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.