This study evaluates the constrained modulus (M) and the small strain shear modulus (Gmax) of cemented sand from cone tip resistance (qc). For this, a series of piezocone and bender element tests are performed in a large calibration chamber, and one-dimensional compression tests are also carried out in an oedometer cell. From the experimental results, the effects of gypsum content, relative density and vertical confining stress on cone tip resistance are investigated. After comparison of the sensitivity of cementation to the deformation moduli and cone tip resistance, the relations between cone tip resistance and the two deformation moduli are interpreted.


Geotechnical engineers are often confronted with cemented or structured materials. The cementation increases the peak strength and the brittle and dilative behavior of sand (Abdulla and Kiousis, 1997; Asghari et al., 2003; Clough et al., 1981; Huang and Airey, 1993; Ismail et al., 2002; Schnaid et al., 2001). Therefore, the cementation of soils has a significant effect on the settlement and bearing capacity of the foundation. However, the effect of cementation on soil is often neglected in the design process since it is difficult to quantify the effect of cementation. A few studies have been performed to evaluate the cementation effect on sand by cone penetration test (CPT). Akili and Torrance (1981), Akili and Al-Joulani (1988), Rad and Tumay (1986), Joshi et al. (1995) and Puppala et al. (1995) estimated the cementation effect on CPT results using artificially cemented specimen prepared in a calibration chamber. Beringen et al. (1982), Schnaid et al. (1998), Puppala et al. (1998), and Danziger et al. (1998) conducted cone penetration tests on natural cemented sediments. Their results showed that the cone tip resistance and sleeve friction increase with the increase of the cementation level.

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