In this study, a new approach to solve fluid structure interaction problems is described. A methodology was developed, the CIP-SPH method, based on coupling the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method for solid phase with the cubic interpolated pseudoparticle (CIP) method for both air and water phases, and results are presented using this new advanced modeling technique. In the proposed method, the solid interface is automatically captured by particles overlapping on fixed grids. Therefore, deformations and motions of coastal structures caused by wave breaking can be calculated with smoothness, efficiency and accuracy. Moreover, both Wagner type and Bagnold type impact pressures with entrained air are numerically and directly estimated using the proposed method. The proposed method simplifies direct numerical simulation of the impact pressure and interaction between wave breaking and coastal/offshore structures.


Violent waves, such as tsunami and storm surges, green water and freak waves, have sufficient energy to propagate in offshore and near-shore regions. The impact pressure acting on coastal and offshore structures is related to violent weather/sea conditions. Forces due to the wave impact on structures are often critical in structural design. Therefore, the impact pressure caused by violent waves can be a criterion when coastal and ocean engineers determine design parameters. Important features of the wave impact include the rapidly varying hydrodynamic load and the consequent dynamics response of structures. These phenomena are localized in both space and time. In previous experimental studies, the impact pressure occurs when the wave front impinges on structures, and in this process, air is trapped and impulsive pressures are generated within the trapped air region. It is therefore extremely important to determine an instantaneous pressure distribution on the face of structures. Despite being an important phenomenon, both the evaluation and prediction of the impact pressure are based on empirical formulae fitted to laboratory measurements.

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