This paper intends to unveil the challenges of deep-water PIP installation and provide a trustworthy simulation of PIP installation processes by using advanced analysis tool – "Simulator", an ABAQUS based JP Kenny in-house Finite Element Analysis (FEA) engine. "Simulator" allows the PIP pipes being modeled individually with realistic interaction between the pipes as PIP being at the normal lay process of S-Lay, J-Lay or Reel-Lay installation. With successful FEA, the load and stress responses of PIP at all installation processes can be calculated in a high level of accuracy. The studies evaluated the effectiveness of Loadshare or intermediate bulkhead, the industrypursuing solutions that can reduce or eliminate the inner pipe lowering and locked-in compression during J-Lay or S-Lay while increasing the PIP load capacity for the high pressure and high temperature operation.


Developments of deepwater oil/gas reservoirs are presently being considered around the world as the petroleum reserves being declined in mild water depth. The pressure and temperature of the oil and gas contents coming out of the deeper ground onshore or subsea are normally higher, and this can be a key challenge for pipeline design. HP/HT (High Pressure and High Temperature), with pressures in the order of 700bar (10,000psi), and temperatures being considered up to 177°C (350°F) are not uncommon in Golf of Mexico (GoM). High pressure and high temperature reservoirs are typically, but not exclusively, black oil and gas condensate fields. They are technically more complex to develop because of the inherently higher energy in the well fluid. High Pressure (HP) has a major impact on the design of wellhead and other equipment, such as manifold valves, in terms of strength, materials and reliability. For piping, flowline, and riser, HP can also lead to greater wall thicknesses. Equipment manufacturing, linepipe fabrication, and pipeline installation become more complex.

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