This paper describes the development and capabilities of a novel and unique tool that interfaces a hydraulic fracture model and a reservoir simulator. This new tool is another step in improving both the efficiency and consistency of connecting hydraulic fracture engineering and reservoir engineering.
The typical way to model hydraulically fractured wells in 3D reservoir simulators is to approximate the fracture behavior with a modified skin or Productivity Index (PI). Neither method captures all the important physics of flow into and through the fracture. This becomes even more critical in cases of multiphase flow and multi-layered reservoirs. Modeling the cleanup phase following hydraulic fracture treatments can be very important in tight gas reservoirs, and this also requires a more detailed simulation of the fracture. Realistic modeling of horizontal wells with multiple hydraulic fractures is another capability that is needed in the industry. This capability requires more than an approximate description of the fracture(s) in the reservoir simulation model.
In order to achieve all the capabilities mentioned above, a new tool was developed within a commercial lumped 3D fracture simulation model. This new tool enables significantly more accurate prediction of post-fracture performance using a commercial reservoir simulator. The automatically generated reservoir simulator input files represent the geometry and hydraulic properties of the reservoir, the fracture, the damaged zone around the fracture and the initial pressure and filtrate fluid distribution in the reservoir. Consistency with the fracture simulation inputs and outputs is assured, since the software automatically transfers the information.
High permeability grid blocks that capture the two-dimensional variation of the fracture conductivity within the reservoir simulator input files represent the fracture. If the fracture width used in the reservoir model is larger than the actual fracture width, the permeability and porosity of the fracture blocks are reduced in order to maintain the transmissibility and porous volume of the actual fracture.
Both proppant and acid fracturing are handled with this approach. To capture the changes in fracture conductivity over time as the bottomhole flowing pressure (BHFP) changes, the pressure dependent behavior of the fracture is passed to the reservoir simulator.
Local grid refinement (LGR) is used in the region of the wellbore and the fracture tip, as well as in the blocks adjacent to the fracture plane. Using small grid blocks adjacent to the fracture plane is needed for an adequate representation of the filtrate-invaded zone using the leak-off depth distribution provided by the fracture simulator.
The reservoir simulator input can be created for multiphase fluid systems with multiple layers and different permeabilities. In addition, different capillary pressure and relative permeability saturation functions for each layer are allowed.