This article provides insight into the influence of soil variability on the performance of a monopile type of wind turbine foundation subjected to long-term lateral cyclic loading in sandy soil. The effects of soil variability are studied by coupling a numerical pile-soil model with the stochastic model of soil properties. The variability of soil properties is transformed by the numerical pile-soil model in the uncertainties of the resulting pile deflections, rotations, and bending moments. A statistical representation of the results of the stochastic simulations is used for the probabilistic assessment of the ultimate and the serviceability limit state. The cyclic soil behavior is taken into account by means of an elasto-plastic stiffness degradation model.

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