Global warming and climate change have become major concerns to the Global Community over the past two decades. The aftermath of these two adverse phenomena pose a threat to human existence and the entire Biological Ecosystem. Over 150 years of industrialization have produced significant levels of waste gases (greenhouse gases) from fossil fuels use. The greenhouse effect, resulting from these emissions (chiefly CO2), have led to drastic upsurge in temperatures and other adverse climate changes.This paper, as part of the global efforts to curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, reviews the already set out GHG mitigation strategies by the Kyoto Protocol and its consequences. It seeks to apply the ideas of the protocol to Nigeria, as a case study, for more energy and environmental security and economic development. Global successes and challenges of the protocol are highlighted also and the concept of carbon credits is concisely discussed. This paper shows that the protocol has generally been successful and could be more successful. It also shows that the application of the strategies in a country would provide better living conditions.

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