As we all know Carbon Capture and Storage is a key technology in helping to move to a less carbon intensive world. The concept is simple: capture the products of combustion that have a deleterious effect on the environment, and dispose of them safely - an elegant disposal solution being to put them back underground.

The reality is less simple. There are technical challenges of scale - how to move from the lab to the giant power station - and of safety; geological challenges - how to show that it will not leak out; commercial challenges - how to fund the project, how to manage liability; and finally regulatory and societal challenges stemming from the novelty of the projects.

Over the past four years a consortium of Shell, National Grid and ScottishPower has been working together, sponsored by the UK Government CCS Demonstration "competition" to try to develop a commercial scale CCS project.

The project that emerged from this collaboration involved a proposal to capture two million tonnes of CO2 per annum from Longannet Power Station near Edinburgh, and transport it for storage in the offshore Goldeneye depleted gas reservoir approx 400 km away in the North Sea, starting in 2015/2016. The Consortium engaged on an extensive FEED (Front End Engineering Design) programme, combined with regulatory engagement and significant commercial negotiation.

This high level of maturity means that we have what we believe are well thought out answers to the challenges outlined above. This paper describes the journey and discusses the main challenges and their solutions.

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