Low liquid loading conditions in wet gas pipelines are challenging to characterize due to a lack of high quality field data and potential for multiple numerical holdup solutions. Recently, experimental and modelling activities have been conducted to improve the accuracy of multiphase flow simulation tools for low liquid loading conditions. The outcomes of this research were implemented and tested in the LedaFlow simulator (v2.0).
This paper presents the validation and comparison of two versions of LedaFlow (v1.8 and v2.0) using operational data from an offshore gas condensate field. The field measurements consisted of pressure, temperature and mass flow rates, which were recorded during quasi steady state flow conditions and transient production scenarios, such as ramp-down, ramp-up, shut-in, restart, and pigging of a three-phase, large diameter pipeline system.
The predicted pressure, temperature and mass flow rates are in good agreement with the field measurements, regardless of the software version used. Prediction of the large diameter pipeline liquid content, validated by measurements inferred from the pigging operations, improved from version 1.8 to version 2.0.
The development of gas-condensate production systems and, more recently, the emergence of long subsea tie-backs to existing facilities, have been driving studies of multiphase flows at low liquid loadings in near-horizontal pipes over the past years.