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Hasan Haswanto

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Proceedings Papers

Publisher: American Rock Mechanics Association

Paper presented at the The 42nd U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium (USRMS), June 29–July 2, 2008

Paper Number: ARMA-08-042

Abstract

ABSTRACT: The granitic rock mass which exists along at (code: E18, 14.5) of the highway Semenyih-Sg.Long (SSL), Selangor state in Malaysia contains a number of major discontinuities, and several sets of minor discontinuities. Therefore, the rock engineering problems of high steep rock slopes are somewhat complicated. The orientation of the major discontinuities were as follows (dip-direction/dip-angle) : J1:36°/66°; J2:152°/60°; J3:79°/88°; J4:117°/66° and the free-face is ff5:105°/70°. Based on the data analysis, the following types of key blocks were determined: type I (keyblock) is the JPs 1000 and JP1100, and type II (potential keyblock) is JPs 1110. The result showed that the maximum safe slope angle (MSSA) is 70° for the type I (keyblock) and MSSA is 72° for the type II (potential keyblock). The cut slope along at the highway Semenyih-Sg.Long (SSL) is not stable because the cut slope angle is 80° that is greater than 70° and 72° within fresh granite, and contains these discontinuities, therefore there is a need for installation of a proper support system in order to maintain the long term stability of this rock slope. 1. INTRODUCTION The highway Semenyih-Sei.Long (SSL) is one of the largest highways in Selangor, Malaysia. The granitic rock mass which exist along at the highway SSL contains a number of major discontinuities, and minor discontinuities, [3], [13]. Therefore, the rock engineering problems of high steep rock slope in the highway SSL are somewhat complicated. In the natural state, these rock slopes are not in a stable condition. When the rock-mass is excavated, for example for a highway, some blocks will develop sliding according to structural planes, and then a chain reaction may occur, which may lead the collapse of whole slope. The block theory is a method to analyze rock mass stability. The reason for the rock mass collapse is due to structural blocks sliding over each other at discontinuities. Previous research on the stability problem of discontinuous rock slope using block theory include determination of sliding modes and safety factors of sliding block by Hoek and Bray [13]. The assessment of kinematic feasibility, sliding and volumes of blocks using inclined stereographic projection by [5] and [6], and vector analysis by [7]. The block theory developed and continouosly extended by shi et.al. [1], [8], [10] can be thought of as a comprehensive procedure of static analysis for stability evaluation of the rock slopes in discontinouos rock massa. The application block theory for stability analysis of rock slope by [2], [4] and [14], [15], [16] and [9] has been illustrated. The block theory is used to identify different block types that exist at highway SSL cut slope faces and is a planning tool for the slope stability. The main purpose of this study is to determine a safe angle for the rock slope for the case of the highway SSL Selangor Malaysia. The block theory is used to determine the Maximum Safe Slope Angle (MSSA) for the rock slopes. The MSSA is a useful planning tools for the cut rock slope stability analysis.

Proceedings Papers

Publisher: American Rock Mechanics Association

Paper presented at the The 42nd U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium (USRMS), June 29–July 2, 2008

Paper Number: ARMA-08-043

Abstract

ABSTRACT: The significance of tension cracks for the stability of slopes has been widely recognized. Prior studies are based on the Plane Failure model for the analytical solution of rock slopes in which the upper slope surface and the tension crack are inclined. In the present paper an attempt has been for made to correct and modify this approach. Application of the analytic solution for rock slope stability analysis for an overburden slope at Air Laya coal mining site PT.Bukit Asam, Tanjung Enim, Sumatera, Indonesia is discussed. The application of the calculated analytic solution of the factor of safety for dry and saturated conditions in the tension crack is carried out. This method is very significant in determining the critical location, depth and angle of the tension crack 1. INTRODUCTION Plane failures in rock slopes occur when a geological discontinuity strikes parallel or nearly parallel to the slope face and dips at an angle greater than the angle of internal friction. [1], [3] and [4] gave the analytical solution for the plane failure mode in rock slopes. Those analysis, they assumed that the upper slope surface is horizontal and tension crack is vertical. [2], [4], and [5], gave the analytical solution for the rock slopes in which the upper slope surface and tension crack are inclined. In the present paper an attempt has been made to correct and modify their approach. The objectives of this analysis are : (1) to develop an analytic solution for the plane failure model for rock slopes in which the upper slope surface and tension crack are inclined, (2) application of the analytic solution to rock slope stability analysis for coal mining at PT. Bukit Asam (PT.BA), Tanjung Enim, Sumatera, Indonesia, and (3) to determine the appropriate depth, angle and location of the tension crack at the rock slope. 2. GEOMETRY OF THE SLOPE The geometry of the slope considered in thepresent analysis is defined in Fig.1. Fig.1. Geometry of the slope(available in full paper) The various symbol used in this figure are: ¿ f , slope face angle; ¿ S , upper slope surface angle; ¿ P , dip of the potential failure plane; ¿ T , angle of the tension crack; h, height of slope; Z L , height of tension crack; W, weight of sliding block; U, uplift water force acting on the block; V, water force in the tension crack, acting of earthquakes on the rear face of the block; a, coefficient of acceleration. 3. PLANE FAILURE ANALYSIS FOR INCLINED UPPER SLOPE SURFACE AND TENSION CRACK The failure plane must strike parallel or nearly parallel (approximately ± 20°) to the slope. The dip of the failure plane must be smaller than the dip of the slope face (¿ P <¿ f ) The angle of internal friction (f ) of the failure plane must be smaller than the dip of the failure plane (f<¿ P ); In the present analysis, the general condition as assumed by [2], [3], [4], and [5] remains the same for plane failure except that the upper slope surface and tension crack are inclined. For the present analysis the following general condition must be satisfied :