Utilizing the traditional chemical materials in the drilling process to modify the mud characteristics has led to many critical troubles, which are related to the environment and personal safety. That is why, researchers have been starting investigating alternative multi-use eco-friendly drilling fluid substances, which are generated from the edible waste products. The effectiveness of using two concentrations of eggshells powder (ESP) to spud mud was conducted utilizing typical API mud tests like filter press, viscometer, unpressurized mud balance, and pH meter. The findings revealed that ESP as an efficient substance to be invested as a weighting agent, viscosity elevator, and fluid loss control material. However, the results showed that ESP additives had no effect on the alkalinity by using 0.75% (5.25 gm) concentration and slightly reduced pH at 1.5% (10.5 gm) concentration. Moreover, increasing the concentration from 0.75% to 1.5% elucidated a sensible improvement in mud weight and the rheology, and inconsiderable enhancement in the filtration features. In summary, these promising experimental outcomes exhibit the feasibility for ESP to be used as a multipurpose biodegradable additive to reduce the drilling fluid expenses, minimize the side effects of conventional chemical materials on the environment and the drilling crew, and decreasing the volume of toxic waste disposed to the environment.
Waste materials, which are usually discarded by humans, are considered unusable. Waste materials are diverse and widely spread as they are produced from different life aspects, including agriculture, farming, industry, etc. The accumulation of global waste materials can be hazardous and detrimental to the environment. The main sources that can generate bulk waste materials include food waste, households, construction waste hazardous waste, wastewater, radioactive waste, and many others (John Hopkins University, 2006).
As mentioned above, waste materials are very diverse and can come in various waste types depending on their nature, composition and unique functions (Environmental Protection Agency, 2015). Therefore, different waste types should be evaluated and studied to identify which waste has the possibility to be invested for implementations in the petroleum industry. Apparently, there is a limited number of waste materials that can be suitable for petroleum applications. Thus, a comprehensive examination of the applicable waste materials for the oil and gas industry should be conducted. Generally, the wastes that are proved to be not harmful, environmentally friendly, and safe to the public would be promising for applications. Hazardous wastes should be eliminated from consideration because they are toxic and harmful to human lives as well as dangerous to the environment. In addition, any form of nuclear or radioactive wastes should not be considered in the oil and gas industry since they cause severe health problems. The wastes that are realized to have potential applications in the oil and gas industry may include food waste, biodegradable waste, and construction waste.