The fundamental mechanisms governing the behaviour of displacement piles in sand are not well comprehended, leading to unreliability in design methods. Understanding the soil responses during monotonic jacking can help improve the pile foundation design. This paper presents numerical results from a two-dimensional discrete element method (DEM), and the influence of soil properties is investigated. The soil responses were examined in terms of displacement, stress and porosity distributions during monotonic jacking, and the Grid Method (GM) was used during sample preparation. The simulation results show great resemblance to the experimental phenomenon. An interface zone adjacent to the pile shaft is observed to comprise of both of both varying stress states and volumetric states while the pile-soil interface is being sheared. The horizontal stress that acted on the pile shaft reduced in response to installation.

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