ABSTRACT:

Three-dimensional (3D) hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM) was used to successfully simulate Brazilian disc, uniaxial and triaxial compression tests of transversely isotropic Georgian Bay shale. The simulation of macroscopic strength was found to be element size dependent, but numerical micromechanical input parameters can interchangeably be used in twodimensional (2D) and 3D models, given they are the same element size, to produce similar emergent macroscopic properties. In 3D simulations, the real-world loading conditions can be completely replicated, thus leading to the observation of behaviour such as unstable fracture propagation and ductile behaviour. A preliminary simulation of a tunnel in Georgian Bay shale was completed and several excavation induced observations were made including: (i) the rotation of the principal stresses ahead of the tunnel face, (ii) the extrusion of the tunnel face, (iii) convergence at the crown and invert, (iv) preconvergence ahead of the tunnel face, and (v) shear dominated failure at the crown and invert.

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