Surface rupturing of a fault during earthquakes still remains a complicated phenomenon involving complex traces and interactions between primary and secondary faulting and variable displacements along the rupture. This review paper presents recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms associated with fault rupture gained through field observations, numerical and scale modelling, and the underlying assumptions incorporated in these approaches. Specific attention has been made to field observations to understand the impact of geological/stratigraphic complexities of fault rupture though rock, weathered rock, and soil. Mitigation measures incorporated in recent construction projects are highlighted. The paper concludes with observations on current and future research.

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